Latin poets to know and love.


c. 480 - 524 CE

Boethius was a sixth-century statesman and scholar who met a cruel death on suspicion of treason, but whose writings were hugely influential during the middle ages.

The Consolation of Philosophy 4. 6. lines 1 - 18

Some things never change

Si vis celsi tonantis iura pura sollers cernere mente

Boethius's reminder that some things never change



84BC - 54BC

The first of the Big Four to write was Catullus. He was reportedly born in 84 BCE in Verona, but spent much of his adult life in Rome, and died young in about 54 BCE, ten years before the death of Julius Caesar. References in the poems suggest that he spent a year abroad at some point on the staff of the Governor of the Province of Bithynia, near the Bosphorus and Black Sea in modern Turkey.

Catullus 1

Catullus dedicates his little book

cui dono lepidum novum libellum

Catullus begins with a dedication

Catullus 2

Passer, deliciae meae puellae

Passer, deliciae meae puellae

Lesbia's sparrow

Catullus 3

Lugete, o Veneres Cupidinesque

Lugete, o Venerese Cupidinesque

A lament for Lesbia's sparrow

Catullus 4

Phaselus ille

Phaselus ille quem videtis, hospites

Catullus's yacht

Catullus 5

Vivamus, mea Lesbia

Vivamus, mea Lesbia, atque amemus

Let's live and love

Catullus 7

How many kisses

Quaeris quot mihi basiationes

Catullus tries again to count the kisses

Catullus 8

Poor Catullus

Miser Catulle, desinas ineptire

Catullus resigns himself to losing Lesbia

Catullus 10

A fashionable conversation

Varus me meus ad suos amores

Bright young things

Catullus 13

An invitation from Catullus

Cenabis bene, mi Fabulle, apud me

Bring a bottle - and ...

Catullus 22

Suffenus the …. poet?

Suffenus iste, Vare, quem probe nosti

Catullus makes allowances

Catullus 85

Love and hate

Odi et amo. quare id faciam fortasse requiris?

Catullus's torment

Catullus 101

Catullus’s farewell to his brother

Multas per gentes et multa per aequora vectus

Catullus mourns his loss



65BCE - 8BCE

Horace, with Virgil, is one of the twin giants of poetry in the time of Augustus. While Virgil was taking the Greek tradition of epic poetry and giving it a new set of completely Roman clothes with the Aeneid, Horace was taking the Greek tradition of lyric poetry that was the established stock-in-trade for much non-epic Roman poetry, and giving it a new and distinctly Roman character.

Odes 1.3

Virgil’s perils on the sea

Sic te diva potens Cypri

Horace prays for a safe voyage for Virgil

Odes 1.5


Quis multa gracilis te puer in rosa

Horace escapes drowning in the sea of love

Odes 1.6

Horace’s limitations

Scriberis Vario fortis et hostium

Horace admits his limitations ... ?

Odes 1.9


Vides ut alta stet nive candidum Soracte

Life is short – enjoy it while you are young

Odes 1.11

Gathering rosebuds: carpe diem

Tu ne quaesieris (scire nefas) quem mihi, quem tibi

Carpe diem

Odes 1.13


Cum tu, Lydia, Telephi

The torments of jealousy

Ode 1.14

Stormy seas

O navis, referent in mare te novi

Cares for the state?

Odes 1.16

Lovely mother, lovelier daughter

O matre pulchra filia pulchrior

Horace recants

Horace Odes, Book 1.22

Horace, the wolf and the upright life

Integer vitae scelerisque purus

The upright life protects Horace from a wolf

Odes 1.23

Horace’s Chloe

Vitas hinnuleo me similis, Chloe

Time to grow up, Chloe

Ode 1.32


Poscimur. Si quid vacui sub umbra

The strapline for the first line

Odes 1.37

Horace’s Cleopatra ode

Nunc est bibendum

Horace celebrates the defeat of Cleopatra

Odes 2.3

Some advice for Dellius

Aequam memento, rebus in arduis

Carpe diem, Dellius

Odes 2.6

Tibur or Tarentum: a poet’s dilemma?

Septimi, Gadis aditure mecum

Tibur or Tarentum: a poet's dilemma?

Odes 2.7

Horace welcomes his army comrade

O saepe mecum tempus in ultimum

Horace welcomes his army comrade

Odes 2.8

Don’t trust Barine

Ulla si iuris tibi peierati

Barine, who gets away with anything

Odes 2.18

Luxury versus the simple life

Non ebur neque aureum

Horace and the follies of the rich

Odes Book 2. 19

Horace’s reverence to Bacchus

Bacchum in remotis carmina rupibus

Horace's hymn to Bacchus

Odes 3.5

Courage and decadence: the Regulus ode

Caelo tonantem credidimus Iovem regnare

Horace's Regulus ode

Odes 3.8

An invitation to Maecenas

Martiis caelebs quid agam kalendis

A fulsome compliment to Horace's patron Maecenas

Odes 3.13

O Fons Bandusiae

O fons Bandusiae, splendidior vitro

Horace's tribute to a spring

Odes 3.19

Here’s to Murena!

Quantum distet ab Inacho

Horace celebrates

Odes 3.20

The tug-of-war for Nearchus

Non vides quanto moveas periclo

Pyrrhus has a fight on his hands for Nearchus.

Odes 3.21

Horace’s prayer to a wine-jar

O nata mecum consule Manlio

Horace's prayer to a wine-jar

Odes 3.28

Celebrating Neptune’s feast day

Festo quid potius die festo Neptuni faciam?

Horace celebrates Neptune's feast day

Odes 3.30

Horace’s monument

Exegi monumentum aere perennius

Horace concludes the Odes - or so he thinks

Odes, Book 4, Ode 1

Horace returns to lyric poetry

Intermissa, Venus, diu

Love at fifty

Odes 4.7

Diffugere nives

Diffugere nives, redeunt iam gramina campis

Death comes to us all

Odes 4.7

Housman and Horace

Gratia cum Nymphis geminisque sororibus audet

The snows are fled away, leaves on the shaws

Odes 4.11

Last love

Est mihi nonum superantis annum

Horace courts his last love

Odes 4.15

The final ode

Phoebus volentem proelia me loqui

Horace signs off with Augustus's praises


3 - 30 CE

Author of "De Bello Civile" ("On the Civil War"), also known as the Pharsalia.

De Bello Civile Book 1, lines 125 - 157

Pompey the oak and Caesar the thunderbolt

Quis iustius induit arma

Lucan introduces the combatants at the beginning of his poem on the civil war

De Bello Civile Book 1, lines 213 - 234

Caesar crosses the Rubicon

Fonte cadit modico, parvisque impellitur undis

Caesar crosses the Rubicon

De Bello Civile Book 1, lines 356 - 391

Caesar’s Centurion pledges loyalty

Summi tunc munera pili

Lessons in loyalty and daring from an old campaigner


c. 99 - c. 55 BCE

Lucretius wrote De Rerum Natura, a work exploring cosmology, physics and theology in order to explain and justify the philosophical basis for Epicureanism.

De Rerum Natura, lines 1.44 - 1.48 and 3.894 - 911

Lucretius’s consolation

omnis enim per se divum natura necessest

Lucretius offers the rational view of grief and fear



43BC - c.18CE

Ovid built a glittering career as the fashionable poet of Love and mythology, but made an enemy of the Emperor Augustus and died around 18 CE after a long and unhappy exile. Meet him at Pantheon Poets.

Ovid Amores Book 2. 12

Ovid’s triumph

Ite triumphales circum mea tempora laurus

Ovid congratulates himself on success with Corinna

Amores, Book 3.14

Ovid’s broad-minded advice to his mistress

Sit tibi mens melior

Kiss, but don't tell!

Metamorphoses Book 1, lines 466-76 and 525-67

Apollo and Daphne

inpiger umbrosa Parnasi constitit arce

To escape Apollo, Daphne becomes a laurel tree

Metamorphoses Book 2, lines 150 - 177


Occupat ille levem juvenali corpore currum

Phaethon's ride in the chariot of the Sun begins.

Metamorphoses Book 2, lines 178 - 216

Phaethon, continued

Ut vero summo despexit ab aethere terras

Phaethon's disastrous ride in the chariot of the Sun continues

Metamorphoses Book 2, lines 301 - 332

Phaethon, concluded

Dixerat haec Telllus: neque enim tolerare vaporem

Jupiter's intervention finally brings Phaethon's disastrous chariot-ride to a close

Metamorphoses Book 2, lines 843 - 875

Europa and the bull

dixit, et expulsi iamdudum monte iuvenci

The story of Europa

Metamorphoses Book 6, Lines 103 - 145

Minerva and Arachne have a weaving contest

Maeonis elusam designat imagine tauri Europam

The mortal Arachne versus the Goddess Minerva

Metamorphoses Book 8, Lines 200 - 235

Daedalus and Icarus

postquam manus ultima coepto inposita est

The story of Daedalus and Icarus

Metamorphoses Book 8, Lines 738 - 779

The sacrilege of Erysichthon

Nec minus Autolyci coniunx, Erysichthone nata

Erysichthon's sacrilege

Metamorphoses Book 8, Lines 780 - 816

Ceres takes revenge

Attonitae dryades damno nemorumque suoque

Fames, the personification of famine and hunger

Metamorphoses Book 8, lines 817 - 845

Erysichthon the Glutton

Dicta Fames Cereris, quamvis contraria semper

Hunger invades the blasphemer, Erysichthon

Metamorphoses Book 8, lines 846 - 884

Erysichthon’s end

Iamque fame patrias altaque voragine ventris

Erysichthon's horrible end

Metamorphoses Book 11, Lines 100 - 128

The Midas touch

Huic deus optandi gratum, sed inutile, fecit muneris arbitrium

Midas and the golden touch

Metamorphoses Book 12, lines 39 - 63

The House of Rumour

Orbe locus medio est inter terrasque fretumque

As the Trojan War becomes imminent, rumour is rife.



About 55 BCE - after 16 BCE

Much of Propertius’s work is love poetry to a mistress he calls Cynthia. A love/hate element often features in the feelings that poets express for their mistresses, and in Propertius both elements are particularly vivid.

Elegies, Book 1.1


Cynthia prima suis miserum me cepit ocellis

Propertius introduces Cynthia

Elegies, Book 1.2

The beauty of simplicity

Quid iuvat ornato procedere, vita, capillo

Propertius's praise of natural beauty in women

Elegies, Book 1.3

Propertius and his sleeping beauty

Qualis Thesea iacuit cedente carina

Propertius returns from a night out

Elegies, Book 1.4

Back off, Bassus!

Quid mihi tam multas laudando, Basse, puellas

Give up Cynthia for someon else? Never, Bassus!

Elegies, Book 1.5

Back off, Gallus!

Invide, tu tandem voces compesce molestas

Propertius deters a riveal

Elegies, Book 1.12

A change of fortune

Quid mihi desidiae non cessas fingere crimen,

Propertius and the pains of separation

Elegies, Book 1.16

The lover’s complaint to the door

Quae fueram magnis olim patefacta triumphis

The lover's complaint to the door

Elegies, Book 2.22A

Propertius on the razzle

Scis here mi multas placuere puellas

Propertius in insatiable mood

Elegies, Book 4.7

The last of Cynthia?

Elegies, Book 4.8

The last of Cynthia!

disce, quid Esquilias hac nocte fugarit aquosas

Propertius and Cynthia's final reconciliation



70BC - 19BC

Virgil was born in 70 BCE. Like Catullus, according to ancient commentators, he came from the North, near Mantua. His was a family of farmers, reasonably prosperous, to judge from his upbringing, but lower in the scale of wealth and social position than Catullus. He had a thorough education, reportedly studying Greek, Epicurean philosophy and rhetoric at Cremona, Milan and Naples.

Eclogue 4, lines 1-17

Virgil predicts a forthcoming birth and a new golden age

Ultima Cumaei venit iam carminis aetas

Virgil predicts a momentous birth

Aeneid Book 1, lines 1-7

The Aeneid begins

Arma virumque cano

The Aeneid begins

Aeneid Book 1, lines 81 - 143

Storm at sea!

Haec ubi dicta, cavum conversa cuspide montem

A tremendous storm threatens death to the Trojans

Aeneid Book 1, lines 254 - 296

Jupiter’s prophecy

Olli subridens hominum sator atque deorum

The future greatness of Rome and Augustus

Aeneid Book 1, lines 387 - 409

Venus’s swans

'Quisquis es, haud, credo, invisus caelestibus auras

The oracle of the swans brings good news to Aeneas

Aeneid Book 1, lines 441-65

The Trojans reach Carthage

Lucus in urbe fuitmedia, laetissimus umbrae

Tears for the human predicament

Aeneid Book 2, lines 1-13

Aeneas prepares to tell Dido his story

Conticuere omnes

Aeneas prepares to tell Dido his story

Aeneid Book 2, lines 40-49

Laocoon warns against the Trojan horse

Primus ibi ante omnes, magna comitante caterva

Laocoon warns against the Trojan horse

Aeneid Book 2, lines 199-227

Laocoon and the snakes

Hic aliud maius miseris multoque tremendum

Laocoon and the snakes

Aeneid Book 2, lines 234 - 245

The Trojan Horse enters the city

Dividimus muros et moenia pandimus urbis

The Trojans seal their fate

Aeneid Book 2, lines 286-313

Hector visits Aeneas in a dream

ille nihil, nec me vana quaerentem moratur

The sack of Troy begins

Aeneid Book 2, lines 526 - 558

The death of Priam

Ecce autem elapsus Pyrrhi de caede Polites

The death of Priam

Aeneid Book 2, Lines 679 - 710

Aeneas rescues his Father Anchises

Talia vociferans gemitu tectum omne replebat

Aeneas rescues his Father Anchises

Aeneid Book 2 lines 707 - 746

Aeneas saves his son and father, but at a cost

Mihi parvus Iulus sit comes

Aeneas flees with his family as the foh of war descends

Aeneid Book 3, lines 374 - 395

How Aeneas will know the site of his city

Nate dea, nam te maioribus ire per altum

Aeneas learns how he will know the site of his city

Aeneid Book 3, lines 231 - 267

The Harpy’s prophecy

Instruimus mensas arisque reponibus ignem

Aeneas and his men encounter the Harpies

Aeneid Book 4, lines 65 - 89

Dido falls in love

heu vatum ignarae mentes!

Dido's fatal passion begins

Aeneid Book 4, lines 129 - 172

Dido and Aeneas: royal hunt and royal affair

Oceanum interea surgens Aurora reliquit

The splendid hunt, the lovers' cave

Aeneid Book 4, lines 173 - 195


ille dies primus leti primusque malorum

Dido and Aeneas: the monster Rumour spreads the news

Aeneid Book 4, lines 238 - 258

Mercury’s journey to Carthage

Dixerat. ille patris magni parere parabat

Mercury's journey to Carthage

Aeneid Book 4, lines 362 - 393

Dido and Aeneas: Hell hath no fury …

Talia dicentem iamdudum aversa tuetur

Dido and Aeneas: the confrontation

Aeneid Book 4, lines 393 - 411

The Trojans prepare to set sail from Carthage

At pius Aeneas, quamquam lenire dolentem

The Trojans prepare to set sail from Carthage

Aeneid Book 4, lines 642 – 668

The death of Dido.

at trepida et coeptis immanibus effera Dido

The death of Dido

Aeneid Book 4, lines 685 - 705

Dido’s release

Sic fata gradus evaserat altos

Dido's final release

Aeneid Book 5, lines 680 - 699

Fire strikes Aeneas’s fleet

non idcirco flamma atque incendia viris indomitas posuere

Fire in Aeneas's fleet

Aeneid Book 5, lines 719 - 740

Anchises’s ghost invites Aeneas to visit the underworld

Talibus incensus dictis senioris amici

Anchises calls Aeneas to visit the underworld

Aeneid Book 5, lines 833 - 861 and 867-871

Palinurus the helmsman is lost

princeps ante omnis densum Palinurus agebat agmen

Palinurus the helmsman is lost

Aeneid Book 6, lines 77 - 101

The Sibyl’s Prophecy

At Phoebi nondum patiens immanis in antro

The Sibyl of Cumae prophesies

Aeneid Book 6, lines 124 - 155

Aeneas learns the way to the underworld

Talibus orabat dictis arasque tenebat

Aeneas learns of the way to the underworld

Aeneid Book 6, lines 236 - 268

The journey to Hades begins

His actis propere exsequitur praecepta Sibyllae

Aeneas and the Sybil take the road for the underworld

Aeneid Book 6, lines 295 - 330

Charon, the ferryman

Hinc via Tartarei quae fert Acherontis ad undas

Charon, the ferryman of the dead

Aeneid Book 6, lines 450 - 476

Aeneas finds Dido among the shades

Inter quas Phoenissa recens a vulnere Dido

Aeneas finds Dido among the shades

Aeneid Book6, lines 548 - 579

Aeneas comes to the Hell of Tartarus

Respicit Aeneas subito et sub rupe sinistra

Aeneas hears of the punishments of Hell in Tartarus

Aeneid Book 6, lines 608 - 627

Souls awaiting punishment in Tartarus, and the crimes that brought them there.

Hic, quibus invisi fratres, dum vita manebat

Crime and punishment in the underworld

Aeneid Book 6, lines 637 - 659

Aeneas reaches the Elysian Fields

His demum exactis, perfecto munere divae

Aeneas and the Cumaean Sibyl reach the Elysian Fields.

Aeneid Book 6, lines 788 - 805

Aeneas’s vision of Augustus

huc geminas nunc flecte acies, hanc aspice gentem

Aeneas's father sings the praises of the future Emperor Augustus.

Aeneid Book 6, lines 860 - 886

Aeneas sees Marcellus, Augustus’s tragic heir

Atque hic Aeneas (una namque ire videbat

Aeneas sees Augustus's tragic heir Marcellus

Aeneid Book 6, lines 886 - 901

The portals of sleep

Sic tota passim regione vagantur

Aeneas returns to the upper Earth through the gates of sleep.

Aeneid Book 7, lines 54- 78

Omens for Princess Lavinia

Multi illam magno e Latio totaque petebat

Strange omens for a Princess

Aeneid Book 7, lines 116- 147

Aeneas arrives in Italy

"heus, etiam menses consumimus!", inquit Iulus

The Harpy's prophecy is harmlessly fulfilled

Aeneid Book 7, Lines 166 - 193

In King Latinus’s hall

Cum praevectus equo longaevi regis ad auris

King Latinus awaits the Trojan envoys in his ancestral hall

Aeneid Book 7, Lines 249 - 273

King Latinus grants the Trojans’ request

Talibus Ilionei dictis defixa Latinus

King Latinus grants Aeneas's request to settle in Italy, and makes an offer.

Aeneid Book 7, lines 445 - 470

A Fury rouses Turnus to war

Talibus Allecto dictis exarsit in iras

The Fury Allecto rouses King Turnus to war

Aeneid Book 7, Lines 511 - 528

The Fury Allecto blows the alarm

At saeva e speculis tempus dea nacta nocendi

The fury Allecto calls the Italian coutryfolk to arms against the Trojans

Aeneid Book 7, Lines 607 - 622

Juno throws open the gates of war

Mos erat Hesperio in Latio, quem protinus urbes

Juno throws open the gates of war

The Aeneid, Book 8, lines 26 - 67

Help for Father Aeneas from Father Tiber

nox erat et terras animalia fessa per omnis

Tiberinus the river-God brings Aeneas helpful advice.

Aeneid Book 8, lines 347- 369

Aeneas tours the site of Rome

vix ea dicta, dehinc progressus monstrat et aram

A tour of the rustic country town that will become Rome

The Aeneid, Book 8, lines 416 - 463

Vulcan’s forge

insula Sicanium iuxta latus Aeoliamque

Vulcan's forge

Aeneid Book 8, lines 505 - 531

New allies for Aeneas

ipse oratores ad me regnique coronam

Evander suggests to Aeneas an alliance with the Etruscans

Aeneid Book 8, lines 678 - 684 and 714 - 731

The shield of Aeneas

hinc Augustus agens Italos in proelia Caesar

The decoration on Aeneas's new shield shows the future history of Rome, culminating in the triumphs of the Emperor Augustus

Aeneid Book 9, lines 54 - 66

Turnus the wolf

clamorem excipiunt socii fremituque sequuntur

Turnus descends on the camp like a wolf on the sheep-fold

Aeneid Book 9, lines 98 - 122

Aeneas’s ships are transformed

immo, ubi defunctae finem portusque tenebunt

Aeneas's ships achieve a glorious fate

Aeneid Book 9, lines 410 - 449

The death of Euryalus and Nisus

dixerat et toto conixus corpore ferrum

Comrades and lovers, Nisus and Euryalus find death together

Aeneid Book 9, lines 791 - 818

Turnus at bay

acrius hoc Teucri clamore incumbere magno

Turnus at bay

Aeneid Book 10, lines 215 - 248


Iamque dies caelo concesserat almaque curru

Aeneas's ships, transformed into sea-nymphs, warn him that the Trojans are in danger.

Aeneid Book 10, lines 333 - 344

Aeneas joins the fray

'Suggere tela mihi, non ullum dextera frustra

Aeneas shows the Rutuli what they have to contend with

Aeneid Book 10, lines 474 - 502

The death of Pallas

At Pallas magnis emittit viribus hastam

Pallas dies at the hands of Turnus

Aeneid Book 10, lines 633 - 665

Turnus is lured away from battle

Iunonem interea compellat Iuppiter ultro

Fearing for his safety, Juno decoys Turnus away from the battlefield.

Aeneid Book 10. lines 885 - 908

King Mezentius meets his match

desine, nam venio moriturus et haec tibi porto

King Mezentius follows his son to death

Aeneid Book 11, lines 24 - 58

Mourning for Pallas

"Ite,"ait "egregias animas, quae sanguine nobis"

Mourning for Pallasand the Trojan dead

Aeneid Book 11, lines 182 - 202

Rites for the allies’ dead

Aurora interea miseris mortalibus almam

The Trojan dead are given burial

Aeneid Book 11, lines 539 - 566

The infant Camilla

Pulsus ob invidiam regno virisque superbas

The childhood of Camilla, the warrior-Queen

Aeneid Book 12, lines 161 - 194

Aeneas’s oath

Interea reges ingenti mole Latinus

Aeneas's oath for the future

Aeneid Book 12, lines 311 - 340

Aeneas is wounded

At pius Aeneas dextram tendebat inermem

A stray arrow catches Aeneas

Aeneid Book 12, lines 791 - 807 and 818 - 842

Juno is reconciled

Iunonem interea rex omnipotentis Olympi

Juno finally relinquishes her anger against Aeneas and the Trojans

Aeneid Book 12, lines 919 - 952

The death of Turnus

Cunctanti telum Aeneas fatale coruscat

Virgil's great epic concludes with Turnus's death

Georgics 1, lines 1 - 42

Virgil begins the Georgics

Quid faciat laetas segetes

Virgil sets the agricultural scene

Georgics Book 1, lines 204 - 230

The farmer’s starry calendar

Praeterea tam sunt Arcturi sidera nobis

Farming by the stars

Georgic 1, lines 351 - 392

Signs of bad weather

Atque haec ut certis possemus discere signis

Weather-wisdom from the ancient world

Georgics Book 1, lines 461 - 514

Catastrophe for Rome?

Denique quid vesper serus vehat

Only Augustus can save Rome

Georgics, Book 2, lines 458 - 474

The farmer’s happy lot

O fortunatos nimium, sua si bona norint

Virgil's rosy view of the farming life

Georgics Book 2, lines 490 - 502 and 513 - 532

More from Virgil’s farming Utopia

Felix qui potuit reum cognoscere causas

More from Virgil's idealised countryside

Georgics Book 3, lines 6 - 22 and 40 - 48

Virgil’s poetic temple to Caesar

Cui non dictus Hylas puer et Latonia Delos

Virgil looks forward to the Aeneid

Georgics Book 4, lines 149 - 190

The natural history of bees

nunc age, naturas apibus quas Iuppiter ipse

Bees and their city state

Georgics Book 4, lines 243 - 279

Love is the same for all

Omne adeo genus in terris hominumque ferarumque

Desire affects all living beings

Georgics Book 4, lines 531 - 558

Aristaeus’s bees

Nate, licet tristes animo deponere curas.

Aristaeus learns how to atone for his guilt and recover his bees